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I.2.A. Metinde var olana yönelik

a) Değinme sözcükleri.

Alıştırma 4

Aşağıda verilen tümcelerin her birinde bir değinme sözcüğü bulunmakta. Bu alıştırmada koyu yazılı olarak verilen değinme sözcüklerini inceleyin.

  1. Scott Fitzgerald, who first introduced him to a publisher, was one of the few contemporary writers that Hemingway did not turn against.

  2. Catching sight of him in a supermarket one day, Archer followed the man with the limp to an apartment in a run-down neighbourhood.

  3. The award was presented to the playwright by the Chairman of the Committee, who said of him that he brought pleasure to literally millions of theatergoers and television viewers.

  4. While Jane was persuading Mary to ask her for the keys to the car, Mrs. Jones happened to be listening at the door and quickly went downstairs and out of the house.

  5. Looking at her closely for the first time in months, Elizabeth realized sadly that the woman was indeed beginning to grow old.

  6. Violet rushed past the general's daughter, strode to the door of the drawing room, and turned to throw her a look of withering scorn before slamming the door with grim satisfaction.

  7. Knowing them well, the Hammonds realized that the Shepherds were unlikely to be on time to meet their guests.

  8. Doctors treating patients with diet pills usually warn them of the dangers of addiction.

  9. Though it is not usually difficult to understand them, stutterers often cause parents a lot of worries.

  10. Intrigued by insects of all kinds, the youngsters spent hours trapping and studying them.

  11. Its usefulness was a thing of the past, but his first bicycle continued to stand in the corner of his bedroom.

  12. The defendants insisted on addressing the members of the jury, thus disregarding the advice of their lawyers.

  13. Jean, along with her sisters Doris and May, baked cakes for the annual contest at the country fair. Jean was sorry hers lost, but happy that Doris won a ribbon for her entry.

  14. The English surprisingly beat the French at the battle of Agincourt in 1415 because theirs were the most disciplined archers.

  15. The opportunity to sample several possible majors as well as greater career flexibility after graduation are two reasons why students choose a liberal arts college; these are not the only ones, however.

  16. Signs of ageing are unavoidable, but those that can be disguised are of particular interest to cosmetic companies.

  17. The proposals were discussed at length by the members of the committee, with only one of them emerging intact.

  18. Note that the instructions preceding the questions encourage students to concentrate only on the ones they feel they understand.

  19. The NASA scientists and astronauts were equally excited by Al Shepherd's first sub-orbital flight and by John Glenn's orbital journey, but it was the latter which caught the attention of the American public.

  20. Both the government and the private sector fund basic and applied research, but grants for the former tend to be relatively restricted in times of economic difficulties.

b) Bağlantı sözcükleri.

Alıştırma 5

Verilen tümceyi izleyebilecek en iyi seçeneği belirleyin.


Glimpses in to the prenatal world via ultrasound imaging occasionally show behaviour such as

A) the development of the central nervous system.
B) the sex of the baby to be.
C) a fetus sucking its thumb. *


In ancient times, glass was very important because people valued it as much as they did precious stones. However

  1. it can be made to stand pressure and hardware if additional chemical are put into it during production phases.

  2. it is so common today that we hardly take any notice of it.

  3. some glass cups have been found as old as 4.000 years old.


Even though English is the largest of all languages, 

  1. there are words coined to describe or name new inventions, discoveries, or manufactured products.

  2. they are constantly adding new words.

  3. they turn people's names into words - pasteurise honours a French scientist and atlas, a Greek god.


In the keeping of road maps up to date, many changes are made necessary by urban expansion and by extensive highway construction programs, including

  1. engineers, constructors and other people involved in construction business.

  2. the relocation of roads, new routes, and freeway developments.

  3. the rewriting of rules for using parking meters and newly set-up parking lots.


Everything from chairs and fishing poles to rope and paper can be made from bamboo. Equally important

  1. this giant grass grows in warm climates.

  2. a variety of food can be made from this giant grass.

  3. preserved bamboo shoots can be used in soups instead of fresh ones.


In the 1940s, when many of today's astronauts hadn't even born, comic strip detective Dick Tracy fought crime in an atomic powered vehicle. In addition to that

  1. he used lasers to process gold and a two-way writs TV for communication.

  2. Dick Tracy was a very popular comic strip in the U.S.

  3. many of today's astronauts have used a kind of atomic-powered space vehicle.

c) Karmaşık yapılar.

Alıştırma 6

Örneğe bakarak, tümceleri daha basit ve kısa parçacıklar halinde yeniden oluşturun.


The Indians indulged in the games of their race while the English performed a military drill for the entertainment of their guests.

a. The Indians indulged in the games of their race.

b. In the meantime, the English performed a military drill.

c. They (= The English) did this drill for the entertainment of their guests (=Indians).

    1. Everyone understands what it is to have a comfortable sense of familiarity with a subject and then, when he tries to write, to find that he can give no satisfactory account of his knowledge.

    2. In 1900 everybody thought of automobiles as playthings of the rich and of people who enjoyed taking chances with an uncertain machine that might wreck them.

    3. A man-eating tiger is a tiger that has been forced by circumstances beyond its control to adopt a diet strange to it.

    4. Since the ancient Egyptians were protected by deserts and had no powerful neighbours to threaten them, they lived in a world strictly of their own making.

    5. Now and then a girl finds a position attractive only if it provides an opportunity for her to be of real service to other human beings and she believes that in her modest way an airline hostess has a chance to be of real help to travellers.

    6. The advantages of such a bridge being built across the point where the two rives join far outweigh the disadvantages of the cost and labour it will entail.

    7. The problem of what to do with old razor blades is said to have been solved in Scotland: it seems they still shave with them.

Alıştırma 7

Verilen tümcenin taşıdığı anlamı yeniden ifade eden seçeneği bulun.


The bulk of Kafka's writings was not published until after his early death from tuberculosis.

  1. It was not until after Kafka's early death from tuberculosis that the bulk of his writings was published. *

  2. After the bulk of his writings was published, Kafka died an early death from tuberculosis.

  3. After Kafka had written the bulk of his published writings, he met with an early death from tuberculosis.

  4. An early death from tuberculosis kept Kafka from publishing the bulk of his writings.

  5. It was only after the bulk of his writings had been published that Kafka died an early death from tuberculosis.


Gorillas, which are vegetarians, have been observed to demonstrate gentle behaviour toward small creatures in the wild. 

  1. It has been observed in the wild that gorillas, by nature vegetarians, treat small animals gently.

  2. Observation reveals that those gorillas that treat small creatures gently in the wild are only the vegetarian ones.

  3. Only vegetarian gorillas have been observed as demonstrating gentle behaviour toward small creatures in the wild.

  4. Small creatures in the wild have observed as behaving gently and demonstratively toward gorillas.

  5. Vegetarians have been observed to demonstrate gentle behaviour toward gorillas and small creatures in the wild.


Medical authorities have been reluctant to support the findings of some nutritionists that vitamin C given in large dose can prevent the common cold. 

  1. According to nutritionists and some medical authorities, the common cold can be prevented by giving large doses of vitamin C.

  2. Medical authorities have not doubt that the findings by some nutritionists that large doses of vitamin C is likely to prevent the common cold is true.

  3. Medical authorities support the nutritionists' views about the value of vitamin C in preventing the common cold.

  4. Nutritionists have found that medical authorities are not in favour of using vitamin C to prevent the common cold.

  5. Some nutritionists have found that large doses of vitamin C can prevent the common cold, but this has not been completely accepted by medical authorities.


While working as a fire fighter at the University of Mississippi, William Faulkner submitted 37 stories to magazines, six of which were accepted. 

  1. Faulkner published 37 stories in magazines, six of which were accepted by the University of Mississippi.

  2. Faulkner wrote six out of 37 stories after accepting a job as a fire fighter at the University of Mississippi.

  3. Of the 37 stories that Faulkner wrote while working at the University of Mississippi as a fire fighter, six became published in magazines.

  4. Of the 37 stories that Faulkner wrote, six were published in the magazines of the University of Mississippi while he worked as a fire fighter.

  5. The six accepted stories by Faulkner were about his job as a fire fighter at the University of Mississippi.

I.2.B. Metinde var olmayana yönelik

Alıştırma 8

Her bir metni ve metni izleyen tümceleri okuyun. Metni izleyen tümceler metinde verilen bilgilere göre doğruysa D, yanlışsa Y ile işaretleyin.


The earliest form of dueling was the clash of mounted knights armed with lances in medieval tournaments. These duels were often purely sporting affairs in which special nonlethal lances were used. They provided entertainment for the spectators and kept the knight in good condition for battle. In Elizabethan days, duels no longer took place on horseback, and the lance was exchanged for a sword and dagger. The sword was held in the right hand and used for attacking, while the dagger was held in the left hand and used for defence. Dueling with swords as a means to decide a point of honour became obsolete with the invention of pistols. Pistols brought about a whole new set of rules and etiquette to that form of duelling.

A duel is a battle between armies of knights on horseback. Y
The knights used lances to fight their duels. D
Spectators enjoyed watching knights kill other knights in tournaments. Y
Fighting duels was a good way for knights to maintain their physical fitness. D
It became very dishonourable to duel with swords after the invention of pistols. Y


The Explorers is a delightful book. It is delightful for its vivid descriptions of the fifteenth century seamen who set out to explore the unknown Atlantic and for its colourful English. It is delightful also for the charming sketches included here and there by a most unusual artist-author.

 The seamen described in the book speak colourful English.

 The beautiful drawings that are present in the book describe both Atlantic and England.


Dialogue adds variety to a story and thus stimulates the reader's interest. It makes the action seem real and may throw light on the characters and the circumstances. In real life a word or speech may be quite as important as an act.

 Sometimes, dialogue bears the same as or even more importance than an action.


There are many different ways of preserving history. The ancient Egyptians carved theirs in stone. The Dead Sea Scrolls were written on leather and parchment. Recently, history has been recorded not only on paper, but also on film, phonograph discs, and tape.

 The main aim of this passage is to enumerate ways of preserving history in ancient times and the present.


One of the prime objects of education is to foster a taste for reading and to cultivate a discriminating appreciation of books. Accordingly every educated person needs the power to express his opinion of what he reads. Such an opinion is called a criticism.

 In education, one main aim is that pupils should like reading and enjoying books.
 Criticism, by definition, is an opinion expressed on what has been read.


When, how, or whence the Indians came to America we do not know for certain. In times more recent, men from Asia have crossed Bering Strait on the ice to Alaska in pursuit of fur-bearing animals. Many centuries ago it would have been just as easy for other Asiatics to have made the journey.

 Probably, those Asian people that crossed Bering Strait in recent times are not the only ones that used this route to America.


A single glove at the scene of a murder may provide valuable clues for the police. For one thing, the size and style may suggest the build of the criminal and his way of life; one glove may direct the search toward a large man accustomed to driving a truck, another may suggest a small, dapper man of the 'society' type. For another, the hairs on a glove when placed under a microscope may provide important information. If they match those of the victim, they may link the owner to the crime. If not, they may give away the criminal's own hair colour or, perhaps, the fact that he has been where there are farm animals. Finally, bits of hay, grains of soil, tiny metal fragments, and even oily threads of cloth are often invaluable in indicating the kind of place where the murderer lives or works.

 The passage groups the valuable services of a single small object for the police under three main topics.
 The size of a single glove may well provide the police with information about the building in which the murder has been committed.
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