Önce seçeneklere bakın ve eğer seçenekler kısa ise tümcede eksik olan bölümün ne olduğunu görün. Seçenekler uzun ise zaman kaybetmeyin. Soru tümcesini okuyun.
Soru tümcesini okurken, tümcenin temel unsurlarını (Ö+Y+N ve ana tümce ile yan tümce) belirlemeye çalışın. Bunlar dışında kalan ve tümcenin uzunluğuna katkı sağlamaktan başka bir işlevi olmayan unsurları ayıklayın.
1. Ö+Y+N yapılı tümcede eksik unsur.
¨ Basit tümcede:
Tümcenin Ö+Y+N yapısını kontrol edin. Basit tümce zannettiğiniz bir yapı bileşik tümce olabilir.
A. Eksik olan özne ise:
Yüklemin tekil ya da çoğul olmasından yola çıkarak tekil ya da çoğul özne arayın;
..... is an animal of great concern to scientists.
A) That the giraffe
B) The giraffe
C) These giraffes
E) Those giraffes
Nesnedeki it(s), his her, him, them.. sözcükleri yolu ile özneyi saptamaya çalışın;
..... will always be remembered for its sinking on her maiden voyage.
A) This ship
B) That the ship
C) These ships
E) Those ships
Tümcede, özneyi niteleyen unsurları göz önünde bulundurun:
Determiner: Article (a, an, the), demonstrative (this, that, these, those), possessive adjective (my, our, your, his, her, its, their)
Adjective: Common (old, yellow, ..), participal (interesting, bored, ..), nominal (plactic, glass, ..)
Quantifier: Cardinal number (one, two, ..), ordinal number (first, second, ..), indefinite quantifier (some, many, few, ..)
Adverb: Adverb of approximation (almost, about, nearly, ..), adverb of strength and intensity (completely, extremely, quite, rather, very, ..)
B. Eksik olan nesne ise:
Öznenin tekil ya da çoğul olmasına göre it(s), his,her, him, them, .. arayın;
Tüm tümce bağlamını inceleyin ve tamamen saçma gözüken seçenekleri eleyin;
Yukarıda değinilen (a) adı nitelendiren yapılara dikkat edin.
C. Eksik olan yüklem ise:
Öznenin tekil ya da çoğul olmasına göre yüklemi saptamaya çalışın;
Öznenin animate (canlı) ya da inanimate (cansız) olmasına göre yüklemin etken mi yoksa edilgen mi olması gerektiğini belirleyin;
Tümce içindeki zaman gösteren yapılar yardımı ile yüklemin hangi zamanda olması gerektiğini saptayın.
¨ Bileşik tümcede
Tümce Tamamlama ile ilgili bölüme bakın.
2. Tümcede clause marker eksik.
He was terribly disappointed with the decision of the committee, ..... he gave in his resignation.
D) in case
Bileşik tümce yapıları çok iyi tanımanız gerekmekte.
Seçenekleri yok varsayarak tümcenin anlamını çıkarmaya çalışın. Tümcenin zaman, neden, sonuç, kıyas gibi bileşik tümce yapılardan hangisine ait olduğunu bulun.
Seçenekler içinde, saptadığınız bileşik tümce türüne ait yapıları arayın.
Seçenekler içinde uygun olan birden fazla yapı varsa (although ve despite gibi), yan tümceyi inceleyin. Seçeneklerden hangisinin yan tümceye uygun olduğunu belirleyin.
3. Tümcede phrase oluşturan yapı eksik
..... acute shortages of food in many countries, the delegates voted to increase programmes and services in weather reporting and research needed for greater production of foodstuffs.
A) By way of
B) Contrary to
C) According to
D) In view of
E) As far as
Ana tümce ile yan tümce arasında ne tür bir ilişki olduğunu belirleyin: karşıtlık, neden, sonuç, ..
Birden fazla seçenek kalırsa, önce yapı, sonra da anlam açısından uygunluğunu denetleyin.
4. Paralel yapıda eksik unsur.
..... you can get the experiments completed ..... you can get the report written up.
A) As soon/as soon
B) The sooner/the sooner
C) The sooner/sooner
D) As soon/The sooner
E) Sooner/the soonest
Tümcenin bir bileşik tümce olduğundan emin olun. Bunun için de bileşik tümce yapıları çok iyi tanımanız gerekmekte.
Bu tür sorularda seçenekler her ne kadar birbirlerine çok benzer gibi görünse de, bazıları tümceye oturtulması dilbilgisi açısından hatalı olmaktadır. Bu şekilde seçenekleri eleyin.
Uygun seçeneği bulmakta zorlanırsanız, seçenekleri tümcenin genel anlamına uygunlukları, ana ve yan tümcelerin her birine uygunlukları açısından sınayın.
5. Tümcede tag question eksik
Prior to taking up this appointment, he used to work for the government, .....?
A) wasn't he
B) did he use
C) didn't he
D) did he
E) didn't he use
Tümcenin ana yükleminin hangi zaman yapısını ya da yardımcı yüklemi içerdiğini saptayın.
Tümcenin öznesinin tekil mi yoksa çoğul mu olduğunu saptayın.
Some of the articles in the Criminal Code will have to be amended, .....?
A) will they
B) won't they
C) haven't they
D) won't it
E) will it
Tümcenin, tag question açısından istisna oluşturacak yapıları içerip içermediğini inceleyin. Bu yapıları Dilbilgisi Açıklamaları içinde bulabilirsiniz.
6. Diğer yapılar
At tomorrow's concert the orchestra ..... by Carl von Braun.
A) will have conducted
B) will conduct
C) has been conducted
D) will be conducted
E) is going to conduct
Zaman belirten yapılara dikkat edin (örnek soruda tomorrow sözcüğü).
Bileşik tümcede zaman uyumuna dikkat edin. Bu konu ile ilgili notlar Dilbilgisi Açıklamaları içinde.
Tümcenin etken/edilgen yapısını inceleyin (örnek soruda by sözcüğü edilgen olması gerektiğini göstermekte.)
You ..... pleased to learn that Mr Lawson ..... chairman.
A) have been/appointed
B) will be/has been appointed
C) are/is appointing
D) have been/was appointed
Yukarıda a. Zamanlar için verilen notları inceleyin.
Do you think you will be able to ..... him to lend his car?
Dilbilgisi Açıklamaları içinde işlenen ettirgen yapıları iyi bilmeniz gerekmekte.
Bu tür sorularda ettirgen yapının geçmekte olduğunu hemen farketmek her zaman için kolay olmamakta. Tümcede esas yüklem dışındaki eylem yapıların (örnek tümcede lend) past participle (V3) ya da infinitive (to+V) şeklinde kullanılmaları söz konusu ise, dikkatli olun! Karşınızda bir ettirgen yapı bulunabilir.
DİLBİLGİSİ - ÖRNEK SORULAR
Aşağıda örnek olarak 32 dilbilgisi sorusu verildi.
Yanıtlar bütün sorulardan sonra gelmekte.
The very idea of establishing a literary "canon" has become ..... controversial that the people running the Library of America have wisely avoided using the term.
Had they apologized for deliberately overcharging me, I ..... a complaint with the Consumers' Rights Office.
A) will not have filed
B) may not have filed
C) would not have filed
D) was not filing
E) may not file
He is diplomatically qualified ..... to negotiate for a mutual reduction of the armed forces in the region.
C) as well as
D) not only
As he was not satisfied with the contents of the document, he declined to sign it, and none of the members attempted to persuade him to, ..... .
C) as well
They haven't met for twelve years or more, but I understand they still write to ..... at regular intervals.
A) the other
B) each other
D) the others
E) one other
Economic recession and rising unemployment, coupled ..... continued increases ..... retail food prices, have curtailed consumption.
A) with / in
B) through / through
C) by / for
D) at / about
E) within / over
In Ethiopia, primitive farming practices and uncontrolled clearing of natural vegetation have transformed much of the country's highlands ..... bare landscapes, all but destroyed ..... erosion.
A) above / of
B) for / with
C) into / by
D) in / under
E) to / at
When the relief workers reached the scene of the disaster, they immediately began to help ..... who could do nothing for ..... .
A) that / himself
B) them / their
C) those / themselves
D) these / themselves
E) us / yourself
Under these circumstances he should never have been allowed to take charge of the operation ..... he was the most senior of the officers available.
C) even though
E) so that
Why can't you admit that, ..... hard he works, he will never manage to achieve what his elder brother has achieved?
Clifford Goertz, probably ..... famous anthropologist in the world today, has revolutionized the way anthropology is taught on campuses.
C) the most
D) the more
Many more people would doubtless have attended the debate ..... they had known in advance who the principal speakers were.
A) if only
In recent decades the efficiency of the United Nations ..... by a growing number of countries.
A) will have been questioned
B) was questioned
C) had been questioned
D) would be questioned
E) has been questioned
It seems likely that by the end of the week, the costs involved in the construction of the bridge ..... by the Ministry.
A) would have been announced
B) would be announced
C) are being announced
D) will have been announced
E) have been announced
They set up a liaison office in East Africa for marketing their goods but now they wish they ..... so.
A) had not done
B) have not done
C) would not do
D) would not have done
E) never do
I was forced to admit that there was a drop in sales towards the end of the year ..... he had predicted.
A) such as
B) even so
C) in case
D) just as
E) so far as
We ..... no problems whatsoever with the dam since it ..... forty years ago.
A) had / has been constructed
B) have had / was constructed
C) had had / had been constructed
D) are having / is constructed
E) were having / was being constructed
It was foolish of me to turn down such an offer; in fact ..... I think about it ..... I regret it.
A) as much / so much more
B) the more / as much
C) much / as much
D) the most / so much
E) the more / the more
The scheme has been ..... consideration for a long time now, but I doubt whether it will ever be put ..... effect.
A) under / into
B) within / through
C) for / to
D) in / off
E) over / over
It was ..... his efforts that the two sides finally agreed to hold talks ..... the principle of economic cooperation.
A) by / through
B) over / for
C) through/ on
D) with / at
E) without / from
There ..... many efforts to eradicate racism, but very little success ..... .
A) were / had been achieved
B) had been / has been achieved
C) have been / has been achieved
D) are / was achieved
E) may be / will have been achieved
Evaporation ..... the process by which a solid or liquid ..... into vapour by heat.
A) had been / resolved
B) was / had resolved
C) has been / was resolved
D) may be / has resolved
E) is / is resolved
The Etruscans, who ..... a great part of Italy about 900 B.C., ..... from Asia Minor.
A) had colonized / originally came
B) colonized / had originally come
C) were colonized / have originally come
D) have colonized / originally come
E) were colonizing / might originally come
The orders were that we ..... the area within hours to prevent further loss of life.
A) had evacuated
B) have to evacuate
C) will have evacuated
D) had to evacuate
E) shall have to evacuate
He ..... his paper by saying that the entire history of the human race ..... by transfers of cultural and technological advance from one civilization to another.
A) concluded / had been marked
B) concludes / would have been marked
C) has concluded / was marked
D) had concluded / is marked
E) will conclude / was being marked
The advance in the steel industry has been marked ..... a progressive increase ..... size, complexity and capital outlay.
A) at / of
B) with / to
C) over / from
D) by / in
E) under / through
The answer to the question ..... great art can exist independently of religion will, ..... depends on society's moral and aesthetic values.
A) what / in the same way
B) even if / in due course
C) whether / to a large extent
D) so that / in short
E) since / now and again
Thailand has lost half of its forests ..... its population has ..... doubled in recent decades.
A) as / more than
B) just as / mostly
C) so as / soon
D) in case / quite
E) because of / much
Holding a yellow umbrella in his hand he said he didn't know ..... it was, and added that it was not ..... .
A) which / him
B) whose / his
C) who / her
D) whom / us
E) that / theirs
The Deputy Prime Minister announced today that it was ..... early to propose amendments in the legislation concerning industrial relations.
A) as well as
B) just so
C) just as
D) as soon as
E) as yet too
Activists are these in a political movement who insist on taking active steps towards their objectives, ..... merely putting forward an action programme.
A) in order to
B) rather than
C) as far as
D) in that
E) so long as
If our delegates hadn't shown themselves willing to come to terms, those from other countries ..... .
A) would be, too
B) wouldn't have, either
C) had not, either
D) have had, too
E) would have, too