1. Give broad transcriptions of the following words. (Ex. 42) 9 pts; 39 each) #


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EDEN 204, the Structure of Modern English, Spring 2013, Mid-Term Exam, 20 pts.

By Erkan Karabacak

Your Name and Lastname: ______________________________________
1. Give broad transcriptions of the following words. (Ex. 2.42) (3.9 pts; 0.39 each)

#

WORD

IPA BROAD TRANSCRIPTION

Exm:

clothes

/ kloʊz /

1

sword

/ sɔrd, soʊrd /

2

drawer [çekmece]

/ drɔr /

3

law

/ lɔ /

4

could

/ kʊd /

5

lamb

/ læm /

6

their

/ ðɛər; unstressed  ðər /

7

there

/ ðɛər; unstressed  ðər /

8

talk

/ tɔk /

9

walk

/ wɔk /

10

mountain

/ maʊntn /


2. Transcribe the following sets of words and mark primary stress with super-ticks. Note the reduction of vowels in unstressed syllables. (3.32) (3.6 pts; 0.6 pt each)

#

WORD

IPA BROAD TRANSCRIPTION

Ex.

(n) rebel

/ ˈrɛ bəl /

Ex.

(v) rebel

/ rɪ ˈbɛl /

1

recognize

/ ˈrɛ kəg naɪz/

2

recognition

/ rɛ kəg ˈnɪ ʃən/

3

bomb

/ bɒm/

4

(v) bombard

/ bɒm ˈbɑrd/

5

organize

/ ˈɔr gə naɪz/

6

organization

/ ɔr nə ˈzeɪ ʃən/,

/ɔː ɡən aɪ ˈzeɪ ʃən/



3. Which of the following sentences violate descriptive rules (non-sentence of English) and which violate prescriptive rules (simply sounds non-standard or uneducated)? (Ex. 1.33) (5 pts; 0.5 each)

Examples:

#

Sentence

Correct form

Violates

Explanation

1

You should have saw that movie.

You should have seen that movie.

Prescriptive rules

Although the correct form is “have seen,” many native speakers do use “have saw.”

2

I forced that he leave.

I forced him to leave.

Descriptive rules

The correct pattern is “forced someone to do something.” Proficient English users would never use this kind of structure, no matter how uneducated they are.


Questions:

#

Sentence

Correct form

Violates

Explanation

1

She has many cat.


She has many cats.

Descriptive rules.




2

Onur like cheese.

Onur likes chese.

Descriptive rules.




3

Can I take your pen for a second?

May I take your pen for a second?

Prescriptive.




4

The sun rises from the East.

The sun rises in the east.

Descriptive.




5

If I was you, I’d get a psychiatrist.

If I were you, I would get a psychiatrist.

Prescriptive.




6

It ain’t good for the heart.

It isn’t good for the heart.

Prescriptive.




7

Oh, thanks God, we are free at last!

Oh, thank god, we are free at last!

Descriptive.




8

We don’t need no education.

We do not need any education.

Prescriptive.




9

She's got a ticket to ride and she don’t care. (in The Beatles song "Ticket to Ride")

She's got a ticket to ride and she doesn’t care.

Prescriptive.




10

I will wait you at home.

I will wait for you at home.

Descriptive.




4. The following sentences are ambiguous in meaning. Translate the following sentences into Turkish for both [+EPISTEMIC] and [+DEONTIC] interpretation. (6.71) (4 pts; 0.8 pt. each.)

Example: The movie shouldn't be violent.

•[+EPISTEMIC] interpretation:

Büyük bir ihtimalle film şiddet içermiyor.
•[+DEONTIC] interpretation:

Bu film şiddet içermesin.
a.She could be discouraged.

•[+EPISTEMIC] interpretation: Onun cesaretinin kırılma ihtimali var.

•[+DEONTIC] interpretation: Onun cesaretini kırmak bizim elimizde.

b.He might try a bit harder to pass the course.

•[+EPISTEMIC] interpretation: Dersini geçmek için daha sıkı çalışma ihtimali var.

•[+DEONTIC] interpretation: Dersini geçmek için daha sıkı çalışması onun için iyi olur.

c.Only experts can advance to the next stage of the competition.

•[+EPISTEMIC] interpretation: Sadece uzmanların yarışmanın bir sonraki safhasına geçme kapasitesi var.
•[+DEONTIC] interpretation: Sadece uzmanların yarışmanın bir sonraki safhasına geçmelerine müsade ediliyor.
d.She must be careful with her money.

•[+EPISTEMIC] interpretation: Tutumlu birisi olduğunu tahmin ediyorum.

•[+DEONTIC] interpretation: Tutumlu olursa iyi eder.

e.We should arrive on time.

•[+EPISTEMIC] interpretation: Zamanında varacağımızı tahmin ediyorum.

•[+DEONTIC] interpretation: Zamanında varırsak iyi olur.

5. Match the phrase to the corresponding type of figurative language.(6.92) (3.5 pts; 0.5 pts. each)

#

Phrase/Sentence

?

Type of Figurative Language

1

They spoke in turn, one after the other.

6

Synesthesia

2

Bush has bombed Afghanistan and Iraq.

1

Tautology

3

The fire ran wild.

5

Oxymoron (Paradox)

4

Babies are ours for borrowed time.

2

Metonymy

5

In shuffle mode, songs are played in random order.

3

Personification

6

The sky smelled blue.

7

Synecdoche

7

Where are my glasses? I can’t see!

4

Metaphor



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