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II. DOĞRUDAN YANITLANAMAYAN SORULAR

II.1. METNİN TÜMÜNE YÖNELİK

II.1.A. Metnin / Yazarın ifade tonu

Alıştırma 9

Metin ile ilgili soruyu yanıtlayın.

The outlook for the expansion of the silk-producing business in the United States is not bright there is no obvious reason why it should. In the first place, the silkworm requires hour-by-hour human care, and Americans, by disposition, are not suited to the work. Again, there is a strong belief that each country should specialise in those countries best suited to her geography and her culture. Why, then, should Americans attempt to build on a large industry which is well suited to Japan and to their South American neighbour, Brazil? And finally, nylon has proved superior to silk for many purposes, and nylon is produced in the States in quantity.

The tone of the passage is _________.

A) protesting
B) humorous
C) informational
D) matter-of-factly
E) sarcastic

II.1.B. Yazarın amacı

Alıştırma 10

Doğru seçeneği belirleyin.

Örnek.

Left-handed people suffer more from stress than their right-handed peers, according to a study of 1.100 adults by University of Michigan researchers. As a result, they smoke and drink more. Fifty-five percent of the lefties smoked, whereas fewer than half of the righties smoked. Furthermore, the lefties consumed more alcohol per year than their right-handed counterparts.

The author's intent is ..... .

A) to show the effects of smoking and drinking on left-handed people
B) to encourage people to stop drinking and smoking, especially if they are left-handed
C) to show that left-handed people suffer more from stress than right-handed people *
D) to criticize the way left-handed people smoke and drink
E) to encourage left-handed people to try and become right-handed individuals

1.

When the world was young, the opportunity for inventing new words must have been unlimited. Even then, however, the inventor's task was less than half accomplished when he had emitted the new sound. Before he could regard his task as complete, he must induce his neighbours to use the sound as he had used it. Here we may draw on modern experience. The child playing in the sand invents a word for the pebbles that fill his hand. The new words is "pocos". Does society adopt this word because it has been duly invented? Not at all. Society has an expression of its own for the designation of pebbles. So the child's word "pocos" lingers for a time in the tolerant memory of the immediate family and then passes into oblivion.

The chief function of the paragraph is ____________.

A) to enumerate details
B) to tell a story
C) to explain
D) to contrast
E) to compare

2.

One application of the use of radioactive materials of particular interest to westerners is the use of radio cobalt to measure the depth of the snowpack in the Sierra Nevadas. For some years a group of co-operating agencies has taken measurements of snow depths throughout the range in order to determine the amount of run-off that will swell the rivers of the lowlands in spring and summer. This requires laborious excursions on snowshoes and skis by snow surveyors. The radio cobalt installation now being tested at the Sierra Nevada Snow Laboratory may eliminate most of this drudgery. A tube of radio cobalt is placed at ground level and its radiations are picked up by a detector directly above it. As snow accumulates, the strength of the signal varies with the quantity of water stored in the pack. Theoretically, a network of these installations would make it possible to keep track of the snow from one central station.
 

1. The main function of the paragraph is _________.

A) to arrive at a definition
B) to argue a controversial point
C) to recount in correct time order
D) to explain
E) to defend a presumably harmful material

2. Choose the best topic.

A) Peacetime Uses of Radioactive Materials.
B) Measuring the Snowpack with Radio Cobalt.
C) Radio Cobalt Uses.
D) The Sierra Nevada Snow Laboratory.
E) New Experiments in Nevada Mountains.

3. What is the principle behind the experiment?

A) As it is used, radioactive cobalt offers no radiation danger to the snow surveyors.
B) Radioactive cobalt helps measure the quantity of water stored in a snow pack.
C) Radioactive cobalt increases the rate at which the snowpack melts.
D) The amount of run-off from the snowpack measures the amount of radioactive cobalt.
E) The strength of the signal from the radioactive cobalt indicates the amount of snow in the snowpack.

4. From the paragraph, which conclusion is justified?

A) Despite today's preference for brain power rather than muscle power, the old-fashioned method of measuring the snowpack will probably prove better than the new one.
B) Radio cobalt installations may be expected to measure the snowpack more effectively than did the old method.
C) The experiment has shown definitely that a network of installations can measure the snowpack from one central station.
D) The use of radioactive cobalt for measuring the snowpack may endanger the lives of ski enthusiasts.
E) The use of radioactive cobalt in scientific experiments is less harmful than most people think it is.

II.1.C. Ortam

Alıştırma 11

Soruyu yanıtlayın.

The Black-Tailed Deer inhabits the forests along the Pacific Coast of North America from southern Alaska to southern California. In summer it is covered by a short reddish coat which it sheds as the season advances. The new coat, known as the 'blue coat', gradually lengthens and turns grey with the approach of winter. Each year the deer sheds its antlers, dropping them off from the skull from the base of the horn. New antlers sprout in the early spring. They are covered at first with skin and fur known as 'velvet', but when they have attained full growth and have hardened, the animal polishes away the 'velvet' against shrubs and trees. The common superstition that the number of points on the antlers indicates the age of the deer is quite without foundation.

This passage may have been taken from _____.

A) a weekend magazine
B) a natural park information service brochure
C) a talk on the natural beauties of Alaska and its surrounding mountains
D) a writing on the development of antlers on various animals
E) a book on various superstitions related with animals and their life

II.2. METNİN BİR BÖLÜMÜNE YÖNELİK

II.2.A. İma edilen

Alıştırma 12

Aşağıda verilen metinlerin ardından ikişer tümce gelmekte. Kimi durumlarda bu tümceler

(a) metinde verilen bilgilerin yeniden ifadesi,
(b) metinde ima edilen ama açıkça verilmeyen bilgilerin ifadesi,
(c) metinde verilen bilgiler bakımından yanlış.

Buna göre, örneğe bakarak, tümceleri (a), (b) ya da (c) ile işaretleyin.

Örnek:

In recent years there have been many reports of a growing impatience with psychiatry, with its seeming foreverness, its high cost, its debatable results, and its vague, esoteric terms. To many people it is like a blind man in a dark room looking for a black cat that is not there. The magazines and mental health associations say psychiatric treatment is a good thing, but what it is or what it accomplishes has not been made clear.

— Even mental health associations have not been able to demonstrate the value of psychiatry. (b)
— People are beginning to doubt the value of psychiatry. (a)

1.

The search for ways of preserving foods is not new. Primitive man learned that he could make foods last by drying them. The Indians, for example, hung buffalo and deer meat in the sun. The greatest single advance began in 1800 when a Frenchman, Nicolas Appert, discovered that he could preserve certain foods by sealing them in jars and keeping the air from them. The process was the beginning of the vast canning industry which brings us a variety of foods in all seasons. Pasteurising is another process which delays spoilage; it is of great importance to the dairy industry. Foods like apricots, prunes, peaches, and apples are often preserved by drying. The use of chemicals is another method, and some foods are cooked with sugar. But recently the use of frozen food cabinets has grown tremendously and more foods than ever before are now being processed by freezing.

— Frozen food is likely to far exceed the use of other methods of preserving food.
— Drying is a method that used to be used until recently.

2.

The common English sparrows are a nuisance, destroying the buds of trees and many fruits while are ripening. They are practically useless as destroyers of harmful insects. They cause great losses in grain fields and they drive away our song birds.

— Sparrows are harmful for men in many aspects.
— Farmers do not like sparrows very much.

3.

Present methods of providing a water supply low in disease germs are so successful that there is now little danger from water-carried diseases in most American and European cities. A large proportion of people who have become ill with typhoid have been infected while outside the city.

— In the country, the process of disinfecting drinking water is not effective as it is in cities.
— Germs are what cause typhoid.

4.

Big trees can be beautiful. But if they are planted in narrow areas they can lift sidewalks and break curbs. Expensive repairs to sewer systems often result when large trees spread their roots. Overhead they may disrupt electric, telephone, and fire-alarm signal lines.

— City planners should be careful before they decide on the number of trees to be planted in a certain area.
— In cases when the tree is harmful for a city's infrastructure, the solution seems to cut them down.

Alıştırma 13

Verilen kısa metinlerin hemen altında bir çıkarım bulunmakta. Bu çıkarımın metnin neresinden alınabileceğini belirleyin.

Örnek.

Is it true that crime doesn't pay? Although it is impossible to report every dollar that was generated into the American economy by Watergate, figures pointed out at what could be termed a first-class growth industry. Fees, royalties, fines, bills, and other miscellaneous payments added up into the millions of dollars moving around the U.S. economy.

It can be inferred from the passage that Watergate is the name of a crime that took place in the U.S.A.

1.

The great temple of Borobudur is a stepped pyramid of unmortared andesite and basalt volcanic stone, standing 403 feet square and 105 feet high. This holy place lay abandoned and forgotten for more than 800 years after a devastating earthquake and an eruption of one of the four surrounding volcanoes caused its population to flee in 1006. Besides earthquakes and volcanoes, torrential rains, encroaching tropical vegetation, and time have all taken their toll.

It can be inferred from the passage that the temple of Borobudur is in ruins.

2.

Characteristics of tropical rain forests are high and steady levels of heat and moisture, as well as a wide variety of organisms. It is believed that two-thirds of all species live in tropics, and half of those live in the tropical rain forests. Nowhere else, except perhaps the tropical coral reefs, is nature so great in its diversity of organisms and complex in its biological interaction.

It can be inferred from the passage that tropical coral reefs contain a wide variety of organisms.

3.

Even though historians think that ice-skating has been a sport for the last 2,000 years, it is within the last five decades that skating has gained recognition as a form of art. Champion athletes combine new heights of athleticism with the elegance of dance in what is called figure skating. Ice skaters performing daring jumps in flamboyant costumes have brought ballet to the ice rink. Ice-skating is now seen as an exciting and innovative sport that has won millions of admirers.

It can be inferred from the passage that ice skaters are both athletes and artists.

Alıştırma 14

Tümce sonrasında verilen ifade, o tümceden bir çıkarım olabilir mi?

Örnek.

Charles F. Richter helped devise a scale that is universally used to measure the magnitute of earthquakes.

Can it inferred that the Richter scale was named for a devastating earthquake? HAYIR

1.

Tattooing a thin dark line along the upper and lower eyelids to replace eyeliner is an operation which appeals to athletic women who do not want to wear eyeliner that smears.

Can it be inferred that athletic women are lazy about putting on cosmetics?

2.

For people whose nerves have been damaged by illness of injuries, actions such as walking or grasping an object may be impossible.

Can it inferred that the nervous system is important for muscle control?

3.

Of the twelve sulfite-associated deaths, one was caused by wine, one by beer, and one by hashed potatoes; the rest were linked to fresh fruits or vegetables.

Can it be inferred that nine people died from sulfite-contaminated fresh foods?

4.

Bifocal lens wearers may soon be able to use contact lenses that take advantage of the way the eye reacts to light.

Can it be inferred that people who need bifocals presently use contact lenses?

5.

Each day, more and more communities discover that they have been living near dumps or on top of ground that has been contaminated by toxic chemicals.

Can it inferred that communities are not always told when and where toxic wastes are being disposed?

II.2.B. Metinden önce/sonra gelen

Alıştırma 15

Aşağıdaki metinlerden önce/sonra nelerden sözedilmiş olabileceğini bulun.

1.

One example is the new breed of cattle being developed by the Brazilians and specially adapted to withstand the pests and the climate of the tropics. The Brazilians today are developing their own civilisation - not a European civilisation, but one which is adapted to the tropical climate, tropical vegetation, tropical light, and tropical colours. And so it is that they are not only working on a new breed of cattle, but also on a new type of grass that is suitable to feed them.

What information is probably in the paragraph preceding the passage?

— Cattle breeding worldwide.
— Agricultural developments in a certain country.

2.

What, then, is amnesia? If you say only that it is loss of memory, you include in the group of amnesiacs any man who forgets his wife's birthday or goes off to the office without his wristwatch. Actually, amnesia is something a bit more sinister. It is loss of memory, to be sure, but it is the sort brought on by injury, overwork, worry, or a nasty blow on the head.

What information is probably in the paragraph preceding the passage?

— Detailed information about amnesia.
— General outline of amnesia.

3.

During the presidency of George Washington, dwelling houses of the better sort were built of brick, and for the most part, their furniture, china, and silver were imported from Europe. In the towns and cities of that day the narrow streets had no lights, no sewers, and no pavements.

What information is probably in the paragraph preceding the passage?

— A brief outline of housing in America before the George Washington period.
— Brief information about the presidency of George Washington and his efforts in having better dwelling houses built.
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