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Sözcüğün Anlamını Tahmin



Aşağıdaki notlar anlamını bilmediğiniz bir sözcüğün anlamını tahmin etmenizi kolaylaştırabilir.

  1. Sözcüğün türü ne? (Ad, yüklem, sıfat, vs.)

  2. Sözcüğün içinde bulunduğu bağlama (context) bakın.

  3. Sözcük metin içinde yinelenmekte mi? Ne kadar sık yinelenirse bağlam sayısı da o kadar fazla olacaktır.

  4. Sözcük başka sözcük ya da yapılarla karşılaştırılmakta mı?

  5. Sözcük metin içinde tanımlanmakta mı?

  6. Kesin olmasa bile bir tahminde bulunmaya çalışın.

ALIŞTIRMALAR

Bu bölümde yer alan alıştırmalar yukarıda belirtilen noktaların uygulamaya konulabilmesi için hazırlanmıştır. Bu nedenle de sözlük kullanılmaması gerekir.

ALIŞTIRMA 1

Because he comes from a poor family, Thomas has always wanted to be wealthy. When he was twenty, he started his own business. His business was a total failure. He started working at a car factory. However, success was still too far away from him because he had a bad argument with his boss and he was sacked. Today, he is still poor but he has not changed much. He still thinks that one day he will be very successful.

Bu paragrafta poor sözcüğü .......... sözcüğü ile kıyaslanmakta ve failure sözcüğü .......... ile kıyaslanmakta.

These characteristics include the regulation of temperature, the capacity for prolonged physical labour, protection from the sun, immunological (defensive responses to infectious diseases) and nutritional and metabolic flexibility.

Bu paragrafta, immunological .......... anlamını taşımakta.

The Greek marriage was monogamous - men and women were allowed one spouse at a time. In rural areas, exchange marriage, in which two men marry each other's sister - was also found.

Bu paragrafta monogamous .......... anlamını ve exchange marriage .......... anlamını taşımakta.

ALIŞTIRMA 2

Aşağıdaki sözcükler İngiliz dilinde mevcut sözcükler:

FAMISHED, FLIPPER, GAUDY, GOGGLE, LINTEL, PILLION, SALLOW, SHRED, TRUDGE

  1. Have you got something to eat ? I'm absolutely famished.

  2. "My God! She is swimming very fast!" "Of course. She's got flippers on."

  3. She read the letter to the end and then tore it to shreds.

  4. On the way, we saw a group of depressed-looking soldiers. They were very tired and they were trudging along through mud and heavy rain.

  5. He was so tall that he hit his head on the lintel when he was entering the room.

  6. Sebastian hates festivals. The loud, bad music, the cheap gaudy colours, the noise, the whole atmosphere - everything makes him feel sick.

  7. He had spent twenty years in an unhealthy tropical climate. That's why his face had a permanent sallow complexion.

  8. Why are you all goggling at me like that ? Have I got two heads or something ?

  9. Mark got on his motorbike, I sat behind him on the pillion, and we roared off into the night.

 SÖZCÜK

SÖZCÜK TÜRÜ

OLASI ANLAM

FAMISHED

 

 

FLIPPER

 

 

SHRED

 

 

TRUDGE

 

 

LINTEL

 

 

GAUDY

 

 

SALLOW

 

 

GOGGLE

 

 

PILLION

 

 

ALIŞTIRMA 3

Aşağıdaki metinde bir trafik kazası anlatılmakta. Metni okuyun ve soruları cevaplandırın. Okurken, koyu yazılı sözcüklere özellikle dikkat edin. İçeriğe bakarak sözcüğün anlamını tahmin etmeye çalışın.

DRIVER ESCAPES THROUGH CAR BOOT

Mr. Peter Johnson, aged 23, battled for half an hour to escape from his trapped car yesterday when it landed upside down in three feet of water. Mr. Johnson took the only escape way - through the boot.

Mr. Johnson's car had fallen into a dike at Romney Marsh, Kent, after skidding on ice. "Fortunately, water began to come in very slowly," Mr. Johnson said. "I couldn't open the doors because they were touching the banks of the dike, and I didn't open the windows because I knew water would come in."

Mr. Johnson, a sweets salesman, of Holy Bank Hill, London Road, Kent, first tried to attract the attention of the other motorists by using the horn and hitting on the roof and the boot. Then he began his struggle to escape.

Later he said, " It was really a half penny which helped me. It was the only coin I had in my pocket and I used it to unscrew the back seat to get into the boot. While I worked on the screws I could feel the water collecting underneath me on the roof. I hit again and again trying to make someone hear, but no help came.

It took another ten minutes to unscrew the seat - and a further five minutes to clear the sweet samples from the boot. Then, he found a wrench to open the boot lock. Fifteen more minutes ebbed away. "It was the only chance I had. Finally it gave, but as soon as I moved the lid the water and mud gushed in. I pushed the lid down into the mud and went out.

His hands and arms cut and bruised, Mr. Johnson got to Beckett farm nearby where he was looked after by the farmer's wife Lucy Bates. Huddled in a heavy coat, he said, "That thirty minutes seemed like hours." "Only the tips of the car wheels were visible," police said last night. The car had sunk into three feet of mud at the bottom of the dike.

Verilen seçeneklerden hangisinin en yakın anlam olduğunu bulun.

1. boot

a) back window
b) space for luggage at the back of the car
c) space for luggage at the front of the car
d) engine compartment

2. dike

a) lake
b) small farm road
c) water channel by the road
d) canal for ships

3. samples

a) boxes of paper for sweets
b) catalogues
c) examples of what he is selling
d) rubbish put into the boot

4. wrench

a) a kind of tool
b) a kind of sweet
c) a bunch of keys
d) a pack of coins

5. ebbed away

a) were left
b) were all he had
c) passed very slowly
d) passed very quickly

6. it gave

a) it presented itself to him
b) it came open
c) it gave trouble
d) he stopped trying

7. gushed in

a) poured
b) came slowly
c) made a loud noise
d) felt cold

8. Huddled

a) Talking
b) Interviewed
c) Wrapped up warmly
d) Confused and surprised

9. tips

a) outside parts
b) rubber parts
c) metal parts
d) tops

ALIŞTIRMA 4

Koyu yazılı verilen sözcüğe en yakın anlamı taşıyan sözcüğü bulun. Sözlük kullanmayın !

  1. I could not convince my friend to go on a picnic instead of to a restaurant. He was adamant in his desire to eat a formal meal.
    a) uncertain
    b) determined
    c) reluctant
    d) responsive
    e) understanding

  2. "Give me specific suggestions when you criticize my work," said the employee. "Vague comments do not help me improve."
    a) Definite
    b) Special
    c) Indefinite
    d) Imperfect
    e) Sufficient

  3. Richard organized his staff with a rigid schedule of jobs and responsibilities which often occupied them twelve hours a day, seven days a week. Many people, unable to tolerate this regimentation, quit their jobs after the first week.
    a) discipline
    b) payment
    c) tolerance
    d) schedule
    e) responsibility

  4. By smiling foolishly and talking loudly, we are able to repress the rising feeling of fear so that it does not affect the way we behave.
    a) display
    b) show
    c) reduce
    d) escape
    e) keep

  5. After the scorpion affair the whole family tried in vain to get me to stop collecting animals and insects. They should have known that I wouldn't stop collecting just because of one little scare.
    a) unclearly
    b) one by one
    c) actually
    d) reasonably
    e) unsuccessfully

  6. The murderer had developed a poison which could not be tasted or smelled when mixed with food. Because it was imperceptible, he was able to murder a number of people without being caught.
    a) easy to find
    b) hard to detect
    c) easy to add
    d) hard to prepare
    e) hard to toxicate

  7. Mr. Fleming was surprised to see me sitting behind his desk. He gave me a startled look, then smiled and said, "I didn't know you were in town."
    a) angry
    b) nervous
    c) confused
    d) nasty
    e) frightened

  8. Roses seem to thrive under certain conditions; the more sunlight and water they receive the more beautiful they are.
    a) colour
    b) fade
    c) die
    d) water
    e) grow

  9. Although he really didn't want to open the mysterious drawer again, his curiosity compelled him to take one last look.
    a) frightened
    b) forced
    c) commanded
    d) prevented
    e) supported

  10. The banker was incredulous when the money did not fall out of the thief's brief case; he couldn't believe that it wasn't there because he had seen him put the bills inside just before leaving the bank.
    a) delighted
    b) disappointed
    c) reluctant
    d) terrified
    e) suspicious

Uygun Anlamın Seçilmesi



ALIŞTIRMA 1

Aşağıdaki kısa metinlerde koyu yazılı verilen sözcüklerin ve yapıların Türkçe karşılığını bulun. Sözlük kullanabilirsiniz.

  1. Surveys show that not all of the reasons for becoming an airline hostess are based on sound thinking. One of the superficial reasons is advice by relatives, teachers, and friends; a second, the belief that the life of an airline hostess is filled with adventure.

  2. Dogs are still No. 1 when it comes to biting people in New York, but people are No. 2. The Health Department's annual survey reported that dogs bit humans 9,809 times during 1985 while humans bit each other 1,591 times. That, at least, is how many bites were serious enough for doctors to report them to the city, said Martin McGinley, a spokesman. The report said that while dogs more reported bites than any other animal last year, the total still was down 8 per cent from 1984. Human bites were down only slightly, however, from a 1984 total of 1,593. Cats were third (879) bites, followed by wild rats (311) , squirrels (75) , and hamsters (57).

  3. There are several methods of cooking meats. (a) They may be roasted with dry heat and little or no water; (b) they may be broiled or barbecued by direct exposure to glowing coals, flames, or electric units; (c) they may be fried either with little fat or deep fat; and (d) they may be raised or baked with vegetables that have been partially cooked

  4. We think of the United States as a rich and plentiful nation. It is; but it isn't self-sufficient. Our reliance on foreign sources is apparent every day in the year. Take sugar. Cane sugar ranks first in value among imported foodstuffs . Or take coffee. Coffee drinking couldn't be an American habit if we cut off our imports from Brazil.

  5. On the first of August, 1952, the tuna ship Challenger was cutting into clear waters of the Pacific a few miles from San Benedicto, a small island some 300 miles from the Mexican mainland. Crewmen aboard the ship were surprised to see a thin pencil of smoke rising from the island. San Benedicto is a barren, three-mile stretch of land which has never been inhabited and, in fact, seldom visited.

ALIŞTIRMA 2

Aşağıdaki metni dikkatle okuyun ve hangi seçeneğin en iyi yanıt olduğunu bulun; verilen seçeneklerin tümü de sözlükte mevcut.

For centuries man believed the Earth to be the centre of Creation. The true picture is far more awe-inspiring.

We live on a small planet revolving round a star of only average size, which is itself revolving, with thousands of millions of other stars, in one galaxy among millions in a Universe that may well be boundless.

Scientific observation has so far probed only a fraction of it. Yet to travel to the frontiers of that observed fraction, even at 186,300 miles per second (the speed of light) would take 6,000 million years, about 20,000 times the total period that human life is estimated to have existed on Earth.

The different bodies and structures in the universe, all of which appear to be receding from us, range from single galaxies to mammoth clusters containing as many as 500 galaxies.

Although the cluster of galaxies to which our galaxy belongs is comparatively small (it has only 25 members), our galaxy itself, the Milky Way System, ranks among the larger of the known stellar systems. Counting its almost 100,000 million stars (of which the Sun with its family of planets is one) at the rate of one star a second would take about 2,500 years.

size

well

Yet

bodies

a) beden

a) kuyu

a) Henüz

a) bedenler 

b) boyut

b) pekalâ

b) Nihayet

b) cisimler 

c) numara

c) iyi, hoş

c) Fakat

c) birlikler 

d) yapıştırıcı

d) tamamiyle

d) Hâlâ

d) gruplar 
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